Blog dedicated to reporting on Mexican drug cartels
on the border line between the US and Mexico

Saturday, September 6, 2014

Mexican Drug Cartels, How It Got To This

DD. This is a repost of an original article that was written by Arm Chair Intellect (ACI) for BB in June of 2012.  In my opinion it is one of the classics on BB and even though many of you have read it, we have many new readers over the past 2 years who probably have not seen it.  Well worth the read.

By ACI for Borderland Beat, June 14, 2012

 How it happen….
The war began before Calderon, but no one could have known what lay in store.  It was so unlikely; most thought that some arrangements would be made, life would go on as it always had.  But as time passed it became clear this was not to be and many simply wished that this Pandora's box would simply close.  Little did anyone know how pervasive and ingrained the darkness had become.

Only a few saw the demons lurking in the shadows, even then no one predicted what lay ahead.  The true roots of the evil had been lurking within the almost 80 year reign of the PRI and its predisposition to corruption.  The system was well worn, the networks had been laid, there was a price for everything, and this was all before the age of the Narco.

When the PRI lost to the PAN in 2000, it shook the foundation of the system to its core.  The old way of doing things had radically changed, the old networks fragmented, alliances broken, and what we have now come to know as the fragmentation of Mexico's criminal underworld had begun.  The chaos had arisen.  This was the cost of years and years of nepotism and corruption and the consequences were finally coming to pass.

Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo or El Padrino (The Godfather);

The Godfather and His Empire
There was a time when one man stood above all others.  He was part of the old guard, well entrenched with the workings of the world in which he lived.  His name was Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo or El Padrino (The Godfather); he oversaw over an entire empire; his industry, illegal smuggling.
He was soon to create what would soon be know as the Mexican Cartel.  For years his network remained unchallenged, immune to justice.  At the time Felix Gallardo was untouchable, too big to fail as they would say.  His organization laid the foundation for the TCO’s to come.

He masterfully greased the hands of politicos and high ranking military officials.  He reached out and began relationships with the Colombians.  The relationship he forged with the Colombians was to be worth more than even he could imagine.  Seemed like there was nothing anyone could do about El Padrino or his organization. That was until the untimely death of DEA agent Enrique Camarena.

Enrique Camarena (Kiki)
The Attention One Receives
Enrique Camarena, an agent with the Drug Enforcement Agency began working in Guadalajara in 1981.  His goal was to find out how powerful the Guadalajara Cartel had become.  At the time he was only one of a handful of agents working within Mexico.  He spent years infiltrating the Guadalajara Cartel for the DEA and had built close ties to El Padrino.  Everything was going according to plan until the betrayal. 
In 1984 Camarena led a raid on a 10,000 acre plantation called the Buffalo Ranch.  Miguel; through his network of police and federal informers quickly became aware of Enrique’s role in the raid.  The ranch was reportedly worth 8 billion dollars.  To Miguel and his ego this was  line that should have never been crossed. 

Miguel reacted and had Enrique kidnapped, tortured then killed, to serve as a warning to any who might want to disrupt cartel business.  The blow back was historic; the United States began the largest murder investigation in its history.  It did not take long before Miguel was identified as a target of interest.  The United States put an enormous amount of pressure on the Mexican Government to apprehend Miguel.  It would take the authorities 5 more years before they would be able to secure his arrest in 1989.

All Empires Eventually Fall
But as with all kings, his reign was to come to an end, all kings eventually fall.  Miguel could see the wheels in motion, he could hear the whispers from those that tended to his mansion, his telephones were a lit with the chatter of governors he had so faithfully served.  He listened as his friends in the government turned on him, the end was near.

He thought he might be able to save what he had built; that he could prevent his subjects from feeding on each other.  He was wrong.  Little did he know how fragile his empire had become, or the monsters he would release upon the Mexican people.  Prior to his arrest he held a meeting in the upscale tourist town of Acapulco.

Here he met with his top lieutenants; Arellano Felix, Carrillo Feuntes, Miguel Quintero, Juan Abergo, Chapo Guzman and Mayo Zambada.  During this meeting he divided up his empire.  Tijuana went the Arellano Felix brothers, Sonora would go to Miguel Quintero, Guzman and Zambada would get Sinaloa and Juarez would go to Carrillo Feuntes.
The Gulf would remain in the hands of Juan Abergo.  His plan worked for a short while, but greed has its own temptations, and the empire he sacrificed his soul for, was doomed to fail.

Let the Good Times Roll
One major shift occurred in the early 1980’s with the Cocaine Wars in Florida.  As law enforcement started to seal off the Caribbean route, as it was called, the money dried up and the routes shifted west; towards Mexico and its porous border with the US.  Prior to this Mexican drug traffickers mainly focused on marijuana and opiate cultivation.  El Padrino had already established connection with the Colombian Cartels, so the transition came naturally.

Cocaine brought with it vast amounts of cash, but with that cash also came blood.  The influx of cash changed the face of the game.  It also changed its nature, violence increased as did the tactics used to intimidate enemies.   It turned one king into to many; soon it would be the Mexicans dictating to the Colombians how the game was played.

Nothing was too expensive, anything could be purchased, and everyone could be bought.  This is the moment that the Mexican Cartels became the main suppliers of drugs to the United States.
Ramon Arellano Felix

The Peace is Broken
It wasn’t long before Guzman started warring with the Arellano Felix brothers.  In the early nineties the Arellano Felix brothers; Ramon in particular, branded extreme violence as par for the course.  Savage daylight hits, terrible stories of torture and vats filled with acid became their legacy.

The war between Guzman and Ramon took place during the early 1990’s. The war hit its climax with the killing of Archbishop at the Tijuana airport.  But while the world was focused was on the AFO, the rest of Mexico’s criminal underworld were quietly making moves in the shadows, and they were just beginning.
The Gulf Cartel which had been around since the 1950’s smuggling booze and other forms of contraband across the border began consolidating power.  The Juarez Cartel run by Carrillo Feuntes, which at the time was considered the most sophisticated and wealthy of the cartels was enjoying the height of its power.  It operating fleet of 747s that were so well known, law enforcement gave Carrillo Feuntes the nickname, the lord of the skies.
Carrillo Feuntes "The Lord of the Skies"
During this period Carrillo Feuntes work closely with a man who would become known as the king maker amongst the underworld.  His name was Juan José Esparragoza Moreno or El Azul.

Another Fragmentation

In the 1990’s the Lord of the Skies died from complications during a surgery. Many members defected and joined up with Guzman and his gang.  Guzman was arrested but his organization was kept afloat by Beltran Levya brothers, Mayo and El Azul.

The game was changing; some of the original leaders grew closer, while others grew further apart.  Family ties were fostered, while others were severed, the wheels of destiny were slowing starting to turn.  Marriage became a popular way of gaining grace, or hedging bets.

So with the CDJ losing many of its members to CDS and the AFO losing ground due to key arrests and deaths, the stage was set for what was to come.  The Gulf Cartel and the Sinaloa Cartel were primed and ready to go toe to toe.

The New Golden Goose
Before the Sinaloa and the Gulf Cartels beef began another unforeseen factor emerged. The game changer was the introduction of large scale methamphetamine labs.  Prior to the late nineties almost all methamphetamine production was made by small groups in small labs all across the heartland of America.

When US law enforcement began cracking down on these mom and pop operations, the manufacture of the drug moved south, and in a massive way.  Instead of small labs producing small amounts of the drug, the Narcos in Mexico began large scale laboratories that would shock the world; both in their scale and complexity.  This gave the Narcos a new and highly lucrative cash supply.
It would create several new networks that dedicated themselves to the manufacture of methamphetamine.  La Familia, Milenio or Los Valencia and Ignacio Coronel Villarreal began to wield great power.  Since then Mexico has become the world’s largest producer of Methamphetamine.  It allowed cartels to have a source of income that did not rely on the unpredictable Colombians or on the treacherous weather of the Sierras.

It is now thought that methamphetamine has superseded the demand for cocaine in the United States and meth use in Mexico has since exploded.  It has also added to the increase in random acts of violence and brutality that has been witnessed so far in this conflict.

 The Formation of Paramilitary Security 
The Zetas were another major shift in the way that Mexico Cartels functioned.  Salvador Gómez took control of the Gulf Cartel from Juan Abergo after his arrest in 1996.  Salvador Gomez's second in command and close friend and confidant was Osiel Cárdenas Guillén, Osiel killed Salvador Gómez shortly after his accent to power.  Thus earning the nickname "Friend Killer" as a result.

As Osiel Cárdenas Guillén came into power he was paranoid; he had always felt bribes only took you so far.  His solution to this problem was to build a paramilitary outfit that would act act an armed wing of his organization.  The faction took the name Los Zetas.  At the time this was a new development for the cartels in Mexico.  Neither Osiel, nor Mexico could have foresaw the terror which was to be unleashed.

With the formation of the Zetas came a new way of confronting both the government and the Gulfs rivals.  They used fear and intimidation openly, displaying their contempt for a system they saw as ridged.  No longer were Narcos to remain out of sight, hiding their acts of terror.  They advertised the horror, using public displays of death marked with the trademark Z, a letter which struck fear in all those who encountered it.  But what truly set Los Zetas apart was the knowledge which they brought with them.  These were the same soldiers trained to apprehend the Narcos themselves.  

The tactics used by the Cartels suddenly became more militaristic, more sophisticated and more brazen.  It wasn’t long before the other cartels formed their own military wings, carrying out acts of savagery that would equal the Zetas.  The escalations have continued unabated to this date, and there seems to be no limit to the brutality and fear they are willing to unleash upon the innocent population.

 The Slaves Become Masters
The rapid increase in power of the Zetas after Osiel was extradited to the US also changed the way most cartels operated, the old rules were challenged by those who had no respect for the ways of the past. 
Those from the older generations were caught off guard by how fast the Zetas began to obtain territories.  They broke from their predecessor and set out on their own.  Instead of the focus being on bribes and long standing relationships with government officials, the Zetas preferred fear and intimidation to achieve their goals.  They broke with convention by preying on civilians within their territory.

They expanded the criminal rackets to include traditional crimes such as extortion and kidnapping but also incorporated more exotic rackets such as oil theft and human smuggling.  With this warlord like mentality they became the fastest growing Cartel in Mexico.  This lead to a more militarized approach towards the Cartels from the Government.  Attacks became more outrageous as time continued.

The public was to bear witness to these atrocities; what were once rumors now became national news.  La Famililia who evolved from the Zetas took public displays of brutality even further when they threw several severed heads on the floor of a club in Michoacán.

This signaled the start of what we now see; the war against the Narcos, a war which would become more savage than darkest nightmare that even Hollywood slasher films would envy. 

If It Is War You Want War, Then War You Shall Have
The acts of violence were so outrageous and the impunity so thick, the Government was forced to act.  Calderon who himself a native of Michoacán decided to take the war to the Cartels.  Keep in mind, the cartels had now spent several years militarizing their forces.

Calderon took a bat to the wasps nest and beat it as if it were a piñata.  To say the wasps reacted badly would be an understatement.  No one could have seen what was to become; the bloodiest conflict to hit Mexico since it revolution nearly 100 years ago.

The Vacuum
The Government took a top down approach recommended by the Americans.  It was known as the Kingpin Strategy, this focused most of the effort on taking out the top bosses.   The unintended consequence of this however was the fragmentation of some of the most powerful cartels in Mexico.  Some of the cartels splintered never to recover, allowing them to be swallowed up by the remaining cartels.  Others went on to rebrand themselves, others simply faded away.

This approach led to a dramatic increase in violence; with up and comers eagerly showing their machismo though savagery.  A kind of one up man ship emerged, with newer cartels having to show their worth through debauchery.  This fracturing and assimilation has rapidly increased with the landscape which is always shifting and always changing.  This has cumulated with most of the smaller groups falling in line either with the Zetas or the Sinaloa Cartels.

The Breakup of the PRI
With PAN winning the election in 2000, the old way of doing business disappeared, payments to those who allowed for business to continue was ruptured.  To understand this one must look at the almost 100 years or PRI rule.  The PRI functioned through bribes, always had, it was the way business was done.
This helped create one of the largest income gaps in the world.  The rich in Mexico are very rich, the poor, very poor.  Nothing was done without bribes but at least you got what you paid for.  Corruption was vertical, money went up and permits and the like went down.  What no one thought of was what would happen if the PRI lost.

When this happened the corruption became horizontal in nature.   No one knew who to pay, or what type of protection they would receive.  This added considerably to the volatility of the situation in Mexico.  Suddenly corruption also became fragmented.  For the underworld, this was the equivalent of a credit crunch in a recession.  It created such a level of uncertainty that reprisals and false agreements became part of the game.

Loyalty became a nuanced term, only thought of when thinking about the way things used to work.  How the upcoming elections will shift this dynamic remains to be seen.

Sinaloa Vs. Zetas    
With the smaller cartels seeming to have either assimilated or forged alliances with either the Sinaloa or Zeta Cartels, violence is sure to continue.

While grisly displays seem to be on the rise, overall violence in Mexico seems to be stabilizing.  This statistic is deceiving however; the security of everyday people in Mexico has deteriorated substantially in the past 6 years of war.  With low impact crime on the rise and an influx of criminals trying to take advantage of the chaos, the typical Mexican is less secure now than they have ever been.

While two cartels are much easier to control than many, the chance of these pacts to sustain themselves is low.  Fragmentation will surely follow; the cartel able to maintain its alliances the longest will come out on top.

This is also true for the corrupted officials who must navigate the the treacherous option of silver of lead. One thing that is sure, is that no matter what prediction lay ahead for Mexico , we should be expect the unexpected.

What Lies In Store 
The real victims of this war have been the youth.  Mexico has lost a generation of would be doctors, teachers, judges, innovators and innocents.  How does one come to grips with losing so much ?

This war has not been fought by old men but rather by those who are lost.  Those who see no hope in an honest future, those who dream of romantic stories of gold and fame, believing that the horror will not reach them.

Children who see nothing but loss and injustice, those who believe the only way to gain anything from life is to take it, by force if necessary.  The youth who would prefer to die young as false kings rather than toil in abject poverty.  This generation, which has thrived on the material, rather than the righteous, has been misguided.

The faces of the thousands of the unnamed and unseen, the invisible; need to become seen, become visible.  Time has a way of healing wrongs, but to blind oneself to what has been lost and what continues to be lost; is in and of itself an injustice and makes it impossible to move forward.  Hope is what is missing for many, but changes could be made, change can occur.

Incentives need to shift; the poor need opportunities to make something good out of themselves.  Poor men deserve dignity, when they are not afforded this, many choose the Narco way of life.  It is easy to preach virtue from gilded perspectives.  Hope needs to be available to all not just the elites.  Mexico for all its beauty must look at what has become so ugly, not just in terms of this drug war but at society as well.


  1. This article was the worth the time it took to read. Post some relevant material, not this codswallop.

  2. Crazy I read it a while back and a few days ago I looked it up and read it again good read!

  3. Borderland beat is the shitt
    Hands down

  4. Nice article but full of mistakes,amado was never at that meeting gallardo set up with all capos,juarez region was giving to someone else,i sugggest u all read jesus blancornelas book,el cartel, or anabel hernandezs book los senores del narco,both very legit authors who know what their talking about.

    1. Good read but not a 100% accurate.. u pointed out some... Also the golf cartel was never under orders of Felix gallardo

  5. Awesome story!! But that's not Ramon in that pic, it's Benjamin

  6. What about the U. S. cartels ( corporations) when are you going to report about them?

    1. This web page is not setup to report about the US. It's mission is to report about the drug war in Mexico. If you want an article about the US corporations then start your own blog about it.

    2. Drug war on both sides of the border, you can't have one without the other. Supply and demand!

    3. Simple if the american drug addicts demand it, cartels supplies it.

  7. Wonderful article, hope it ends someday. the ones who really suffer r the children of Mexico.

  8. Off topic mayito Gordo dead in Mexicali

  9. Part II

    Instead of the reasoned and civil conversations that arise in most threads, when it came to climate change the comment sections became a battleground. Rather than making thoughtful arguments based on peer-reviewed science to refute man-made climate change, contrarians immediately resorted to aggressive behaviors. On one side, deniers accused any of the hard-working scientists whose research supported and furthered our understanding of man-made climate change of being bought by “Big Green.” On the other side, deniers were frequently insulted and accused of being paid to comment on reddit by “Big Oil.”

    After some time interacting with the regular denier posters, it became clear that they could not or would not improve their demeanor. These problematic users were not the common “internet trolls” looking to have a little fun upsetting people. Such users are practically the norm on reddit. These people were true believers, blind to the fact that their arguments were hopelessly flawed, the result of cherry-picked data and conspiratorial thinking. They had no idea that the smart-sounding talking points from their preferred climate blog were, even to a casual climate science observer, plainly wrong. They were completely enamored by the emotionally charged and rhetoric-based arguments of pundits on talk radio and Fox News.

    As a scientist myself, it became clear to me that the contrarians were not capable of providing the science to support their “skepticism” on climate change. The evidence simply does not exist to justify continued denial that climate change is caused by humans and will be bad. There is always legitimate debate around the cutting edge of research, something we see regularly. But with climate change, science that has been established, constantly tested, and reaffirmed for decades was routinely called into question.

    Over and over, solid peer-reviewed science was insulted as corrupt, while blog posts from fossil-fuel-funded groups were cited as objective fact. Worst of all, they didn’t even get the irony of quoting oil-funded blogs that called university scientists biased.

    The end result was a disservice to science and to rational exploration, not to mention the scholarly audience we are proud to have cultivated. When 97 percent of climate scientists agree that man is changing the climate, we would hope the comments would at least acknowledge if not reflect such widespread consensus. Since that was not the case, we needed more than just an ad hoc approach to correct the situation.

  10. Part III

    The answer was found in the form of proactive moderation. About a year ago, we moderators became increasingly stringent with deniers. When a potentially controversial submission was posted, a warning would be issued stating the rules for comments (most importantly that your comment isn’t a conspiracy theory) and advising that further violations of the rules could result in the commenter being banned from the forum.

    As expected, several users reacted strongly to this. As a site, reddit is passionately dedicated to free speech, so we expected considerable blowback. But the widespread outrage we feared never materialized, and the atmosphere greatly improved.

    We discovered that the disruptive faction that bombarded climate change posts was actually substantially smaller than it had seemed. Just a small handful of people ran all of the most offensive accounts. What looked like a substantial group of objective skeptics to the outside observer was actually just a few bitter and biased posters with more opinions then evidence.

    Negating the ability of this misguided group to post to the forum quickly resulted in a change in the culture within the comments. Where once there were personal insults and bitter accusations, there is now discussion of the relevant aspects of the research. Instead of (almost comically) paranoid and delusional conspiracy theories, we have knowledgeable users explaining complicated concepts to non-scientists who are simply interested in understanding the research. While we won’t claim /r/science is perfect, users seem happy with the changes made.

    Like our commenters, professional climate change deniers have an outsized influence in the media and the public. And like our commenters, their rejection of climate science is not based on an accurate understanding of the science but on political preferences and personality. As moderators responsible for what millions of people see, we felt that to allow a handful of commenters to so purposefully mislead our audience was simply immoral.

    So if a half-dozen volunteers can keep a page with more than 4 million users from being a microphone for the antiscientific, is it too much to ask for newspapers to police their own editorial pages as proficiently?"

    Thanks for your time and space,


  11. 10,000 acres ranch worth 8 billion that is crazy. How much was this guy worth?

  12. Which drug war was worse mex or colombia?

  13. Very true, alliances are everything. When Chapo was getting big years ago he allied himself with all the local drug barons to the areas in which he wanted to operate. Back then many of them were traditional 'tough guys' now it's different. The reason CDS got so big is the fact that they took in many other groups like Milenio cartel remnants to name just one.

  14. Jaun abergon was never a capo for Miguel he took over from his uncle gulf cartel always was independent of the other cartels structure shouldn't. Make shit up just cause it sounds good

  15. Not fully accurate. .. but good none the less... big was it's own thing and not picking sides but I blame most of the shit on el chapo and his greed. He should have been killed hut Calderón was in bed with him...

    1. Totally inacurate. No sabes de q hablas.

    2. A big part of the reason why mexico is all fucked up is el chapos fault hes greed and jealosy started up wars that havent ended

  16. @Septenber 6, 2014 at 7:30 PM
    I believe Ciudad Juarez Plaza was given to Pablo Acosta Villareal "El Zorro de Ojinaga."

  17. The beginning captures the essence of organized crime and the reason it exists:

    "He masterfully greased the hands of politicos and high ranking military officials."

    The politicos and high ranking military officials are the beneficiaries from organized crime and they will never let it be deafeated.

  18. Honestly I have never published a comment never found it Necessary until this day I find this article truly invigorating even with general overall view the message hits home

  19. Chives the arch bishop that was gunned down by David Barron and the ago enforcers was in Guadalajara you accidentally stated it was in tijuana. Other than that awesome article.

  20. I'd also like to mention that I think terrorists indirectly changed the drug industry in Mexico. Cartels learned how much shock and fear beheadings can have on the public when they saw how much media attention the terrorists were getting from the beheadings they did in Iraq and Afghanistan. Now beheadings are used as a intimidation tactic by pretty much every cartel in Mexico when before although torture was common, beheadings were not.

    1. I remember beheadings in México since the mid 80's. They didn't take pictures back then. Palo mayombe was poppin' and NarcoSatanicos where the feared guys.

    2. Adolfo Constanzo and the Hernandez family from Matamoros..

  21. Yeah no mention of rafa or aviles

  22. this is happening all over the world, in one form or another. The worst thing, I feel is how places like Mexico, so full of opportunity yet so open to exploitation, these are the places where the blood flows and the bodies stack high. But all over the world, the generations are losing hope in honest future prospects, while things keep going this way, who can say what will happen even in the so-called "developed" places? look at inner cities - Chicago - NewYork - London - Paris - Lisbon - Rome - Naples - Berlin - all over the world you have the very rich and the very poor, no more "middle class" as a go-between, one is either a "player" or they can rot in a slum estate somewhere... nothing new here, it's down to us as individuals to sort it out. No fairy godmother will come down and wave a magic wand, it's not rocket science either - just individually look and say "what can I do to help this situation" whether it means creating opportunities or uniting people, do something ANYTHING other than look on and do nothing.

  23. it is from ACI written for BB , DD reposted it from the archives. yes I know there were some omissions.mistakes like the arch bishop. but it is a good read.

  24. RE: Mayito
    where did you hear this? any links? thanks

  25. Its too late for mexico to stop corruption, and the cartels its too late the government fucked themselves back in 80s and so on now the best thing they could really do is control it

  26. 1:15 do we get to report or comment only on what happens on top of the steel courtain or on the middle of the rio grande?
    BB has been reporting on drug trafficking from russia, china, australia, canada, all of mexico and central america, and includes all of north america, if you don't like it, you should find other site that obeys and caters to your every whim...

  27. I think there was no official split, it was just a matter of everybody for himself, pablo acosta with amado carrillo fuentes in cd juarez for don neto, first to get immensely big...
    The tijuana california area worked by don chuy labra aviles, from aguascalientes with the arellano felix for maguel angel felix gallardo, and sonora sinaloa for el chapo, guero palmas and co for rafael caro quintero, after ending in prison for workng together, they would be in no humor about working together anymore...

  28. Mexico, the Nuevo Afghanistan

  29. Enrique Camarena DID NOT LEAD the raid on the ranch.
    Further, there's evidence now that the CIA had Camarena killed because he found out that the drugs were getting controlled and sold by the CIA to fund the war against the Sandinistas, simply because our Congress would not authorize the funding.
    Senior DEA staff has made that allegation very clear.

  30. Viva mexico its a price to pay to keep the drugs coming up north so americans can have their freedom getting high while mexicanos take their jobs and reclaim aztlan

  31. All of you commentators that know the ups and downs of all the cartels, DEA really appreciate the free info.

  32. Great article, thanks for reposting it. Borderland Beat tells the hard truths that are unpopular with politicians on both sides of the border, and which many people don't want to hear. BB is the most courageous and important independent new source in the Americas. When I want to find out what's really going on, I read Borderland Beat....

  33. Yeah BB is something, that is why some poople are trying to drive it their way and control the output, senile dreams of the impotent without argument...

  34. To the DEA:
    --you're welcome, we like helping you, unlike the CIA who like killing your agents and to keep up their illegal drug trafficking, to help their revolutionary goal of personal enrichment...
    --no excuses needed anymore, castristas, sandinstas and chavistas can stick their communist republics where the sun don't shine...

  35. What is especially good about Borderland Beat (BLB) is the natural self correcting features ... like when readers jump in and make comments that contribute facts, insights, opinions, or perspectives that help understand a given topic better.

    Usually, BLB's B'S self correcting mechanism works fast.

  36. The Author forgot to say that:

    this shit was started by the CIA.

    1- Mexico legalised drugs on February 17, 1940.

    2- The US forced mexico to ban them again.

    3- During WW2, to get morphine, US required the Opium produced in mexican highlands (the first drug smugglers).

    4- After the war, came the cold-war.
    So, to hunt comunists the CIA created the DFS in Mexico.

    5- the 1st cartel (Félix Gallardos) grew large thanks to the protectection of the DFS.

    6- Félix Gallardo worked alogside the CIA in helping Nicaraguan Contras.

    7- DEA Agent Kiki Camarena was Assassinated becaus he Fell in a CIA Operation Gone Awry.



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