Reporting on the Mexican Cartel Drug War

Beyond Madness: Violence in Mexico

Monday, February 25, 2013 |

Marco Appel El Diario -- Proceso (2-23-13)

Translated by un vato for Borderland Beat

Brussels -- The cadaver of a man lies under an intense yellow light from the street lights. His face is hidden by the angle from which the photograph was taken. An abundant stream of blood flows from his head and goes down the badly paved street. Four police officers are walking a few yards away, they seem to ignore the body.

It is the scene of a crime committed in March, 2010, in the Colonia Paso del Norte, in Ciudad Juarez (Chih.) The image, apart from morbidness and yellow journalism, still poses questions for the spectator; it's the work of veteran Dutch war photographer Teun Voeten, and is part of the graphic book,  Narco Estado: Narco-violence in Mexico.

The work, from the Belgian publisher Lannoo, received financial support from the Pascal Decroos Fund for Special Journalism  in Belgium and the Emergency Fund of the Magnum Foundation in New York.

From 2009 to 2011, Teun Voeten visited Mexico several times. He was impressed when he learned that Ciudad Jarez was one of the most dangerous cities in the world. During that time, he took photographs related to violence not only in Juarez -- which he visited 10 times --, but also in Culiacan, Sinaloa, and Morelia, Michoacan.

Howard Campbell, professor of archeology and researcher on Mexican affairs at the University of Texas, speaks about Voeten's work: "In his work, the 'day to day-ness' of another body being found is represented by a soldier who takes a picture of the body with his cell phone.
Meanwhile, the chiaroscuro images of sinister Juarez streets provide the backdrop for a modern underground war whose victims are almost all poor. As Voeten's gallery of photographs shows, Juarez is a place where drinking, drugs and cheap sex are key business elements, and the participants in that business have hard, fast and short lives."

In an interview with Proceso, Voeten comments that at the beginning of his project, he contacted Juarez authorities and asked to be allowed to accompany police officers when they went out to crime scenes.

"I got a lot of cooperation from the Mayor's office. I realize it was easier for me as a foreigner to be allowed to accompany them, because this represents a huge risk to local journalists; the narcos may consider them allies of the police," he explains.

He points out that it was the previous administration who was so helpful, and he says: "The current one wants to give the impression that there is no more violence in Juarez."

The photographer also asked the military for permission to accompany them; however, he says they made excuses and he was not able to obtain permission. "It was a Mexican style 'No'", he says with a smile.

In the introduction to his book, as well as in the interview, he states that documenting narco-violence is a challenge, because the opposing groups "are hidden players, unknown, who operate from behind a veil of secrecy."  

He assures us that he has witnessed every kind of act of barbarism that humans are capable of committing against fellow humans. "In Sarajevo, during the Bosnia-Hersegovina war, I fled from snipers who were firing at civilians in an enclosed area where they were also starving to death.
" In Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, I was there at the start of the genocide and saw hordes hunting their victims with machetes. In Kabul (Afghanistan) and Grozni (Chechen Republic), I walked through residential neighborhoods that were in ruins and alongside people who were begging for food."

He also mentions that he got his "dose of madness" in the conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia, where he dealt with totally drugged child soldiers. More recently, he says, in Libya he saw bodies that were piled up after a massacre.

Despite this, he assures us that nothing compares with the extreme narco-violence in Mexico.

"In Rwanda, for example, they would kill people but they would leave the bodies alone. In Mexico, they first savagely torture the victims, then they dismember them, mutilate them, hang them; the murderers show off their savagery in very creative ways: the sadism I have seen in Mexico I haven't seen in any other part of the world. In Sierra Leone, I witnessed insanity, but In Mexico it is totally demented," he states....-continues on next page-

Voeten, from his training as an anthropologist, offers an explanation for what is happening in Mexico.

To begin with, he defines it as a "war," but of a kind that experts in security matters call "new wars." The conflicts in Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Bosnia or Liberia are examples of this phenomenon.
These wars, unlike conventional wars where States face each other with professional armies in defined battle fields, are characterized by being prolonged, low intensity conflicts in which ideology does not matter and where hostile factions use religious and ethnic causes as pretexts. In that context, the civilian population becomes the target of attacks.

In those "new wars" -- Teun goes on -- the absence of the rule of law, the chaos and anarchy, becomes an end in itself, "a  necessary precondition for the war lords to exploit local resources, like drugs or minerals, and they may create a black market under their control." Such conflicts are not financed by central governments, but through murky agreements between rival factions with criminal elements, he explains.

And, he points out: "In Mexico, that 'new war' phenomenon has gone farther. Rival factions no longer need to develop links with international crime because they are already criminal mafias."


What surprised Voeten most was the impunity that prevails in the country. In his book, he notes: "98% of the murders in Ciudad Juarez are not resolved, and they probably will never be.
One feels very vulnerable knowing that at any moment, for whatever reason, one can be riddled with bullets and the murderers will get away without any worry. The majority of murders are classified as 'related to drug trafficking' and the investigations go nowhere.

"In any case, forensic services cannot keep up with the work load. Opportunistically, 'unorganized crime' flourishes in this generally lawless atmosphere, in which the State is no longer able to guarantee the safety of its citizens; parts of Mexico are under the de facto control of organized crime." 

--The title of your book derives from that analysis-- Voeten is asked.

--That's right. It was my idea. It has to do with the concept of failed states. There are regions in the country where the State has lost control: Tamaulipas, Ciudad Juarez, parts of Michoacan, Durango... I believe that in these cases, it is justified to talk about a narco-state. There are great areas where the State is totally infiltrated by narcos, corruption and impunity.

Campbell (at left) --author of the book, Drug War Zone--, who contributed to Voeten's book with an introductory text, agrees with this interpretation.

"The Mexican narco-state -- suggests the academic-- is a political and economic system in which international drug traffickers, the U.S. drug market, as well as bankers and government officials, all work hand in hand.
Each partner to the agreement does its part.  The politicians appoint convenient police and military in a particular territory. The traffickers transport cocaine by boat, submarine and trucks from South America.

"The drug lords organize the cultivation, or industrial production, of heroin, marijuana or methamphetamines, as well as its transportation to U.S. markets. Mexican police and soldiers protect the merchandise for the most powerful cartels and attack those shipments that do not have the regime's support."

And he closes: "U.S. businessmen and consumers never tire of the benefits and cheap 'highs' from smoking, sniffing or injecting the merchandise. This is a perfect system for those who benefit from its fruitful monetary harvest and its hallucinatory pleasures."

For his part, Voeten comments that many of his friends and colleagues criticize him for focusing on what they consider a "marginal criminal problem." Faced with these comments, the anthropologist responds that his work focuses on sociopolitical conflicts.

Along these lines, he states that narco violence in Mexico is not "an isolated case of mafia war," and that, on the contrary, "it has immense social and political implications."

And he warns: "The erosion of civil society and its gradual replacement by organized crime; the birth of a new class of excluded persons and disposable people who choose a criminal career that ends in death; the devaluation of human life, all these elements present a nightmare scenario of what our future could be."

(Marco Appel/Proceso)  
All photos are of photographer Teo Voeten's new book 'Narco Estado'

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50 Borderland Beat Comments:

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the heads-up on Voeten's book. The review raised a couple of questions concerning violence in Mexico and from reading Borderland Beat for several years. Perhaps, the author covers these in the book. Anyway,

1. PTSD issues: The long term "sadistic" style of cartel-war type violence in Mexico that makes it probable that thousands of Mexicans are afflicted with PTSD. Those victims of primary, secondary, and tertiary violence are everywhere ... and doubtless suffering various clinical manifestations of the PTSD syndrome.

2. Along with the above, I wonder if the book covers the issues and effects of "broken" nuclear and extended family units due to killed loved ones or kinfolk.

Thanks Borderland Beat for posting the book review.


Anonymous said...

I miss Mexico. I miss family members down there. But would'nt attempt go visit right now..The U.S. has it so lucky even though we're the main consumer of drugs. We don't worry about Narco-Violence unless your mixed-up in it....GOD HELP MEXICO

Anonymous said...

"U.S. businessmen and consumers never tire of the benefits and cheap 'highs' from smoking, sniffing or injecting the merchandise. This is a perfect system for those who benefit from its fruitful monetary harvest and its hallucinatory pleasures."

The part everyone knows full well is at the core of the problem . The consumer.

But let us all burry our heads in the sand and pretend it is the poor consumer in the ghetto.

Anonymous said...

I'll read the book, but when he writes "U.S. businessmen and consumers never tire of the benefits and cheap 'highs' from smoking, sniffing or injecting the merchandise." he is way off. US businessmen who did drugs was a phenomenon of the 80's. We all saw those people loose it all. And any businessman I know who dabbles in drugs is in a bad position, outside of pot. And the businessmen and women, who do smoke pot, treat it like wine and only smoke the best stuff grown locally. That crap from Mexico is for blacks in the ghettos and white trash in the trailer parks who don't know any better. Show me a person hooked on coke or meth who has their shit together. Within a year they become thieves and liars who loose everything including their families.

Anonymous said...

It is the brutality of men who have descended back into the realm of savages. It is the same as what existed when the Apaches and Commanches once ravaged Mexico, and people in Mexico fought back in turn against the tribes. Sheer human brutality.

If you let go of morality, if you let go of God, if you let go of compassion - this is what you get. Depravity.

P. California

Anonymous said...

Mexico and its people will go to HELL.

On borderlandbeat message board people complain on the cartels and the drug war but when a gruesome video is posted many like it.

Anonymous said...

Un Vato- You are on a roll, this book seems to be a must read. As, for his critics blowing off the mayham as, marginal, that is just crazy. I too worry about the effects on the people of México. Be it P.T.S.D. or the multitued of other mental illness that they may face,my heart goes out to them. When you add displacement of families,deaths of loved ones...there is so much sadness. Thanks, Texas Grandma. Peace,hope and love to all innocents.

Anonymous said...

International banks and corrupt politicians aid and abett cartels and terrorist organizations. HSBC and Wachovia laundered billions for criminal organizations and all they get is a 1.9 billion dollar fine from U.S.DOJ, in the case of HSBC, and no indictments. That amounts to a slap on the wrist for a bank that made 17 billion dollars in one year. Some coined the phrase to " big to jail" to describe the justice administered to the bankers of HSBC. So the well won't run dry anytime soon for the cartels' funding of their drug wars and the bribing of corrupt politicians. Unfortunately for the people of Mexico, they will end up paying the ultimate price because of corrupt businessmen and governtment officials, in U.S.,Mexico, and theUK, pursuit of the almighty dollar.

Anonymous said...

u n every body like u are going to hell just for sayn that

Slow POKEY said...

As usual very good comments from BB readers. The U.S. does share at least part of the blame, and I've said before, we need to ether legalize drugs, all drugs, or start shooting drug user's. I favor nether. I have no answers on how to reduce consumption. Does any one else. Even if we did would that stop the madness in Mexico.

Anonymous said...

60,000 dead and missing in Mexico, Mr. Teum from Belgium who received financial support “visited mexico a few times” takes a few pictures and interviews and is advertising a book (30.40 on Amazon).
This book will be popular with people who like to see gore. And like to see other people’s demise only to make themselves feel better. I’m looking forward to get a copy for my coffee table at home. Right,,

How about a National broadcast exposing corruption, in government, banks (both sides of the border) , courts, detention facilities, abuse and murder of migrants, women, law enforcement, journalists,,,

Mr. Teum, good luck with your book.



Anonymous said...

the easiest way to stop this is to start executing Banksters that wass money for the cartels. you can only transport so much cash in a car, or any other vehicle. But thru banks you can transfer billions. Stop the cashflow and stop alot of this madness.

Anonymous said...

So if the USA legalizes drugs then they will not be part of the problem in Mexico any more, right? They will not share in the crime and death of Mexican people. It is not about drug users. It is about money. They can extort, kidnap, smuggle humans, run slaves and so on. It is all about money. So to stop all the kidnapping everyone needs to be poor. Everyone needs to quit paying prostitutes because there might be a sex slave in there. Everyone should not own a business because they will be extorted. If the USA kicks all the illegals out and does not give them jobs then there will be no more smuggling of humans. It is everybody's fault for living in the USA and living, and in Mexico for trying to get ahead. Everyone needs to live in a cave and grow a garden. Because if you try to get ahead or enjoy life you are contributing to the crime in Mexico according to some people.

Anonymous said...

bankers, USA, media, politics,
blah, blah, blah

excuses, excuses, excuses

Anonymous said...

"the birth of a new class of excluded persons and disposable people,the devaluation of human life, all these elements present a nightmare scenario of what our future could be"
This is why to some extent we have a stake in young people who feel alienated,disenfranchised,no future,no hope of making a better life.It is what it is.We know we will have people right here who say"there is help,they can make a better life"street kids need someone to point them in the direction,everyone needs help sometimes.This is the way the world is going,grim,but true.I don't want to have to live in gated community's with security patrols?What kind of shit is that,what kind of way to live is that.Mexico,has huge potential but the greedy bastards at the top could not care less.Not just Mexico,many countries don't invest in their own kids?They are a country's natural resource that is left to stagnate into anger-ridden young people who don't care about abstract ideals.That investment right now is nada

Anonymous said...

Can you see what parts of the quote were highlighted here in the comments?How predictable was that?Sad,for our two countries and peoples there is a very very long way to go.Sad indeed?

Anonymous said...

"Mr. Teum from Belgium who received financial support “visited mexico a few times” takes a few pictures and interviews"
The same thing struck me,i was wondering why can't a Mexican writer do something similar in terms of writing a book?But,it occurs to you,how could a Mexican national write a book such as this and continue to live in Mexico?He"visited mexico a few times"can you write an in depth analysis or maybe not even in depth,with experience such as this?I also agree with you on reasons for writing a book like this,it is an interesting topic as we know,surely a"seller"
Any Mexican Americans out there with an in depth knowledge and capable of writing a book get to it.Surely you would be more authentic,credible(just because you are Mexican doesn't mean you know everything,of course)than a man who"visited mexico a few times"?Maybe precisely because he is not Mexican he can write an unbiased and impartial analysis?Who knows it takes all sorts to make our world

Lawrence Fishburn said...

Native Americans were not 'savages'. That term was used to justify slaughtering them. This sort of violence has no comparison to that.

I think the savagery we have seen in Mexico the last four or five years comes from Mexico's version of machismo. In Mexico, tradition holds that when you fight another man, you fight with a knife. You don't wince when you feel pain.

I remember being in Mexico City seeing a guy with a box with a crank on the side and two handles sticking out the top of it. There were little kids following him around. Guys would pay him a peso to hold the handles while he turned the crank, which would shock the shit out of them. The idea was to hold onto the handles as long as possible. You only find this extreme version of machismo in Mexico. I have seen it nowhere else, and I have traveled all over Latin America.

Yes, there are women involved in the conflict, but they are the exception. This is a very, very male 'war'.

Anonymous said...

Mexico should make itself into a theme park for people who like to see bloody gore. They could take people on tours to see murder sites and bodies, shot up vehicles and severed heads etc. Of course you would have to have full security guarding the groups lest they become one of the exhibits. Nuevo Laredo could be like the Disneyland of Gore. We could call it Dead Zeta Land.

Anonymous said...

all this violence because of 3 plants that the government decided to make illigal. ahhhh i wish the violence was here in the u.s so these americans could feel the pain. The politicians want to ignore. But how would they ignore it if its their face lookin at the camera with for other masked me tryn to chop his head off. And all because of prohiobition

Anonymous said...

Article does a good job of showing a realistic picture of what is going on in Mexico instead of the overly optimistic one fed by the Mex or US govts.

Anonymous said...

This is'nt embarrassing to you guys? I mean fuck we've been basically wiping our own people off the fucking planet! There was a new film that came out in November that was about the beauty of my culture called Hecho En Mexico. It was badass to see something good made about because the world see us as the Africa of the Americas. I'm 28 and have lived most of this bullshit war with front row seats to the carnage. I'm in sales so I go the Mexico 6 or seven times a year and go all over. I was brought up in rough neighborhoods but my parents always taught me to respect the people next to me. I've lost family in Mexico to this but I remember my dad always saying " respect and be humble because you never know who will give you the last glass of water". I don't comprihend how you kids actually root for that COWARD el 40 or chapo? You've never met either or benefited from either because you probably don't go to Mexico and go out anywhere! When I go down there I go out and see how it is now and its bullshit. If you take away either cowards guns and bodyguards where are they? I'm 6 foot at 205 pounds and I would stomp thier ass. Cheer if you will but we all know there truth. You teeny boppers need to stay off the grown peoples website believing all the corridos and bullshit grow up!

Chivis said...

I saw the photos of the book and really are very few graphic death fotos, those that exist are mild, relatively, much like the two above. the photos are more of the 'life' in the war, peripheral context. and the manifestations derived from the war. the author/photo journalist had help with a co author in Mexico as well as Campbell.

Anonymous said...

That is absolutely true peace LoKss

Anonymous said...

CDG is going after The Zetas & FM Alliance in DF. CDG wants full control of DF. Putaz Zorraz trucha ay viene tu padre pendejos

Anonymous said...

"ahhhh i wish the violence was here in the u.s so these americans could feel the pain"
Here is the intellect of these fuckin idiots,how do you live with that kind of idiocy."Ohhh,Mexico how i love you"but guess where they want to go for a better life,and then wish death and mayhem on the very place they hope will make life better for them and their families?How can you deal with hateful mindsets like this,where is the sense in that?
He is in the US wishing death and mayhem on the people just because we have a semblance of law and order?

Anonymous said...

4:47 PM
"ahhhh i wish the violence was here in the u.s so these americans could feel the pain" NICE,,,,,,HOW NICE ?
Hate-full comments from another hateful fucker.If you hate the US so much fuck off anywhere,it is so easy,,,bye bye.
Do something instead of blaming the ills of the world on the US,do any of you spineless fuckers who's country is the US take offense at these kind of comments,bearing in mind that this dog is in the US?

Anonymous said...

theres many out there they own construction companys n they coke addicts

Anonymous said...

" February 25, 2013 at 4:47 PM "
If i was saying comments like this,you phony fuckers would be calling me all kinds of names,yet this spineless bastard can wish murder and mayhem on a whole country,,for what?Because he is a bitter loser and hates the world and a race?This dog lives amongst us in the US?

Anonymous said...

Lawrence ... I suggest that you read the book by S. C. Gwynne called "Empire of the Summer Moon". It is about the Commanches who ranged over a large part of the Plains in the USA, and well down into Mexico. And YES - they were extremely brutal to any prisoners they took. READ the book - based on historical evidence. White, Mexican, or Native American - you were guaranteed to suffer horribly if captured by them.

But I am not saying that Native Americans are an exception ... I believe that ALL people have the potential to exhibit brutal behavior. It is a choice that we all make - or don't make.

Anonymous said...

The Banks. It is true that $$ is the root of all evil.

However, if you where to legalize all drugs, that would not make them free.

That's funny when people say " legalize all drugs to solve the problem".

These guys have an Indigenous way to make Billions.

For instance if grass where dope....

Anonymous said...

All the violence is not because the Govt. decided to make three plants illegal. All this is a direct result of TOTAL CORRUPTION that has been allowed to flourish in Mexico for decades. It has been allowed by the govt and the people. It was a way of life that was accepted and it rotted society from the inside out. They let these cartels grow and operate with complete impunity and this is the result. Mexico brought this on themselves and I have no sympathy.

SWOT Hunter said...

Excellent's content rich and identifies key issues which all lead to one implication...the Mexico as a nation is essentially done as we know it. At this point I cannot help but see a civil war erupting on a much larger scale.

About the consumers being responsible for Mexico's drug war, I disagree. I don't disagree because the attack is toward Americans, I disagree because most people have a choice...and if the choice is to traffic's a personal choice and decision.

Outside that, I just posted to pieces on vigilante element just below a broader civil war... posted here... and

Anonymous said...

Bullshit. There are a ton of lawyers that do coke to allow them to put in 70-hour weeks.

Anonymous said...

no!! they extort and kidnap now because they need to get money into their organization that only exist because of prohibition. They need to have the upper hand of one another. They feel as they have to survive in that hell. If prohibition never existed, then the young kids you see on every single photo would of stayed in school and never get warped into a life of crime. The society was turnd to that. Poverty stayed the way it did because of corruption. Men in poverty prove to be good soldiers especially flashing lots of money and especially to THAT IS MADE IN THE BLACK MARKET THAT WAS SYSTEMATICALLY CREATED to OPRESS. You be the judge no matter fact no because the american judgement is proven to be really...really weak..9/11

Anonymous said...

"If i was saying comments like this,you phony fuckers would be calling me all kinds of names,yet this spineless bastard can wish murder and mayhem on a whole country,,for what?Because he is a bitter loser and hates the world and a race?This dog lives amongst us in the US"

Your worthless politicians need to be thought a lesson because all they do is bend over for the wealthy men, Yes i would like them to meet their end since they stand there and try to cover this up. This is real life man people are dying over nothing!over these proxy wars that keep buissness up. Is it worth it? Its not and if you support americas reckless behavior because look you people voted an oil tycoon for president then after you voted for an ex lawyer. somehow you dont realize you are electing buissness men who love money. Thats why they just stand back and watch us die. and if you love having them run everything about you then your the enemy as well

Lawrence Fishburn said...

@7:03 PM
The US cavalry did the same to them. The Spaniards were even worse. Flat out genocide. Who were the real savages? The genocidal maniacs that were exterminating them, or the warrior tribes who resisted them?

Anonymous said...

Don't forget the amount of narcotics transported through the US to Canada. The narcotics also corrupt the Mexican population. If you legalize drugs, the cartels will just increase production and lower prices to compete with the government for market shares. The reasons foreign cartels compete for the US market is money. The money doled out to provide assistance to chidren in the ghetto and trailer parks is handed over to the local dealers and eventually back to the cartels, The US Government pays billions a year to the cartels by thid route.

Anonymous said...

@ 4:32 you sir are a man of vision ;)

Anonymous said...

and dreams....bout it.zetas aint goin knowhere,CDS keep comin into NL and get buried out in the desert

Anonymous said...

I like how all u hoes have a solution to this problem right from the comfort of your desk chair

Anonymous said...

i cant understand when someone says that if the kids would just stay in school, well....., in latin america the kids can really go to school for a short time for free, its not like it is here in the us. alot of these kids have no one around to help guide them and from what i understand when a person goes past a certain grade, they pretty much have to pay to stay in school. anyway you put it, your country is fucked. oh, and dont blame the consumer, if it wasn't there to buy then that would be the end of it, right? humans have a natural tendency to destroy themselves wether it be all by oneself or, as a whole. so your argument is as pointless to me as the chicken or the egg. our gvt's dont really mind if we screw ourselves up so we waste time and money on ourselves instead of coming together to help derail that system...i think there will be a natural cleansing coming our way for everyone unfortunately.

Anonymous said...

"zetas aint goin knowhere,CDS keep comin into NL and get buried out in the desert" Burned in the holed barrel ?
Speak on that shit some more,all you see and hear is people saying that same shit.CDS/CDG killin Z here,killin Z there,Zacatecas now CDG/CDS ?

Anonymous said...

Not all americans consume drugs just like all mexicans are involved in the drug trade.its the people at the top on both sides of the border who dont seem to care who dies.if they depended on americans like me to buy their product they would all be on welfare and food stamps.mexican citizens need to change their gun laws and arm themselves with the same kind of weapons they have.i bet they would always question whos door they kicked in next to kidnap happens a good bit here where the criminal goes to commit a crime on someone and ends up getting gunned down themselves by a citizen trying to protect happens alot more here than people know it just doesnt make the news as often

Anonymous said...

Maybe because of prohibition i agree but as far as the violence getting as bad as it is in mexico? No way not with well over 300 million guns in the hands of citizens we blast back.thats they only reason probably why they are not openly killing people here because the odds of themselves being shot to death are pretty damn good

Anonymous said...

Bull.. not all states in the US have access to high grade marijuana...blacks in the ghetto and trailer trash? Slap yourself! How can you speak for all business people from every state in the US?? I know plenty of businessman who dabble in cocaine! And besides that he said businessmen AND consumers!

Anonymous said...

Ill be picking this book up also Abue, and like u I feel for the innocents, ive seen the effects of this "war" on both sides of the fence. Theres much more to this life than greed and drugs.-

Anonymous said...

I love that shocker btw if u hold hands with some else they feel the current as well...

Anonymous said...

Well the organize crime element woulnt of exist if the prohibition wasent there. sure their would always be bandits and of the resources arnt being spent on fighting drug dealers than the bandits who do the senceless killings, kidnappings, and robbing would be dealt with better. there were bandits before alcohol prohibition as well one the black market was open so did the network of activities for the bandit to work with as well capitalism changes humans to the worse think if only tesla would been able to built his free energy tower we could of been less poor.

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