Thursday, April 23, 2020

Nuevo Leon: Tracking a Huachicol Tunnel in Monterrey

By Redlogarythm for Borderland Beat
              
 The intake once it was detroyed by Pemex workers

On April 12 elements of the Municipal Police and of the Guardia National broke into a cellar on the Colonia Gloria Mendiola, Municipality of General Escobedo, on the Monterrey Metropolitan Area. According to official reports an anonymous complaint made on April 4th had detonated an investigation led by the PGR that in less than two weeks located a massive illegal oil intake (or Toma) which had been used for stealing oil directly from Pemex´s pipelines. In this case the illegal draining facility had been built underground, through a tunnel connecting the Pemex buried pipeline with the cellar where the oil was decanted into massive deposits taken later to the street market in pick-ups or tanker trucks.

The huachicol, as oil-theft is known in Mexico, is not a novelty in Mexico. It started being exploited by illegal actors during the 1980´s and by the 90´s had evolved into a multimillion industry led by dozens of entrepreneurs and ``businessmen´´ that created real monopolies over the industry of oil theft. During the 2000´s several organized crime factions joined the industry by partnering or absorbing these entrepreneurs. The CDG, for example, started draining the Cuenca de Burgos shale gas deposits massively. 

The CDG and soon Los Zetas were caught dealing with several Texan companies the exportation of shale and natural gas condensate through the border to several storing facilities at Port Elizabeth. The penetration of drug cartels into the oil theft market was due to the cannibalization of sources of revenue. When illicit actors start needing funds to cover their operational expenses they first absorb illicit markets since they´re not subjected to Government protection and the people running them (such as the original huachicoleros) don´t have any other option but to partner or die. After the illicit markets comes the cannibalization of licit businesses: maquilas, restaurants, gas stations, shopping malls, casinos, etc. One after the other, they all fall into the arms of organized crime, either by direct absorption or through extortion/derecho de piso. 

By the 2010´s most of oil theft networks operating in Mexico belonged to organized crime factions. This doesn´t mean that there aren´t independent huachicoleros. In fact, there are multiple examples of groups running their own theft schemes. But it is impossible for them to operate such an illegal market without paying a fee to the criminal cell controlling the territory where they operate. 


Sometimes the pressure is harder and the huachicolero group is merged with the criminal cell, as happened for example in Veracruz or Nuevo Leon, where due to the aggressive expansionist strategy of Los Zetas most of the huachicol networks were force to join the group.

As a result, there has been a real boom in the huachicol business. In 2004, two years before the war on cartels was declared by Comandante Borolas (aka Felipe Calderon) only 102 illegal intakes were detected. By 2006 the number of intakes had increased to 213, but by 2010 it had jumped to 691. The illegal intakes skyrocketed next year, on 2011, when they reached 1,361 (nearly doubling in 12 months) On 2013 2,613 where detected and on 2014 the number had reached 4,219. In conclusion, from 104 to 4,219 intakes in less than a decade, peaking at times when the cartel turf wars also peaked (just look at the 2011 increase coinciding with the eruption of hostilities between CGG and Los Zetas)

Illegal intakes in Mexico until 2014

Organized crime in Mexico uses three different methods in order to steal oil:

- The most famous one consists on digging the soil until the buried pipeline appears, improvising an intake by directly breaking the pipe and stealing as much oil as possible before the authorities arrive. In order to save time and collect as much oil as possible. The huachicol networks using this tactic have previously contacted hundreds of people who for a fixed fee are told the place where the action will take place. These people appear at the scene with plastic cans and decanters trying to recover some liters of oil and confront the authorities when they arrive with Pemex personnel to block the leak. Although this method is very famous since it is carried at day broad light, it represents only a tiny fraction of the total of oil being stolen in Mexico (approx. 15% of the total)

- The second method is to steal oil from Pemex facilities (such as refineries) and tank trucks. For doing this the huachicoleros usually are colluded with Pemex personnel (truck drivers, refinery workers or Labor Union delegates) who give them the time and place to empty the deposits and fill them with water or other liquid agents.

- Parallel Drainage Systems: this system is the best one since it is difficult to detect and allows the cells running it to steal extremely huge amounts of gas. It consists of connecting a parallel pipe network to the original Pemex pipeline and redirect them to a place where the alternative pipeline network is used to fill hundreds of tanks without anyone noticing. These kind of pipeline networks are usually built underground through tunnels and are connected to a basement where the extraction takes place.

Pemex tries to detect these parallel networks through changes in pressure inside the pipelines. When someone prickles a pipeline it immediately causes a drain of oil that reduces the pressure inside the gas pipe and this decrease in pressure is immediately detected by special valves that report pressure incidents to Pemex facilities, which in turn partner with police forces and go to the area where the pressure is detected to find out what is happening. Nevertheless, the people running these parallel networks can avoid pressure changes by injecting pressurized water. In other words, when they start extracting oil from a pipe, they immediately connect a hose through which water is pressurized into the pipeline with the assistance of a compressor.

Contrary to the other two methods this systems makes it possible to obtain large amounts of gas while remaining completely anonymous both for local authorities and external actors (such as rival groups or corrupted Pemex personnel with whom one must partner in order to drain the tank trucks) After being drained from the pipeline the gas is redirected towards the basement were the hoses have been connected to storing devices, generally plastic palet containers with capacity for 1,000 liters or several other types of barrels. It´s more difficult to funnel the stolen oil directly to a tank truck since this type of vehicles are big and noisy and can attract attention. Also, there´s the problem of receipts and seals. When Pemex tank trucks are operating distributing gas, the driver is provided with several receipts certifying his load, origin and destination. The control system is made even safer with plastic or metal seals used for the sealing of loading/unloading valves. If you want to fill the truck with a new you must need to break both seals, the one at the exit valve to empty the tank from its original load and the loading valve seal in order to fill the tank with stolen gas. Nevertheless, this system is far from being perfect and it still is possible to trick it.
Classic Parallel System Scheme

The parallel huachicol theft system being discovered two weeks ago at General Escobedo was quite sophisticated in my opinion. In fact, most of the parallel networks are sophisticated because they are operated by professionals, not by crooks that only show up to extort Pemex employers or to drain the pipes publicly. A lot of the people running these parallel networks are former Pemex employees and know how to install their own pipes and connect the pressurized water into the pipeline to trick the pressure valves. In fact, the ``huachitunel´´ of General Escobedo, as these underground facilities are known, was excavated approx. 1,5 meters underground. It had an extension of 30 meters long and according to the videos and images obtained it was in a particularly good condition: clean, tidy, and well illuminated with electric light.
Interior of the Tunnel

The entry to the tunnel had been made in order to simulate a concrete sewage cover in order to disguise its illegal purpose.
The entry, simulating a sewerage entry door

Inside the tunnel authorities found several instruments used for the maintenance of the drainage system as well as, and this is important, 10 high pressure industrial hoses. I´m not able to assure it, but of those 10 hoses 1 or 2 could have been used to inject water into the pipeline while oil was being drained.




There are two things about this ``huachitunel´´ attracting my attention. First, according to the official explanations this parallel facility was quite old. In fact, it was estimated that it had been operating at least for a year. This means that during more than 365 days the huachicol network running the scheme had a disposable pipeline at hand. I´m not saying they´ve been operating the huachitunel 24/7. In fact I suppose they had been operating it in intervals in order not to generate too much attention onto their activities, both from Pemex engineers detecting pressure changes and from local neighbors detecting strange movement and the characteristic penetrating smell of oil that quickly filters through earth and comes outside, to the streets. 

Second, the place where the huachitunel was located isn´t a rural area. In fact, it is in a highly populated area on the outskirts of Monterrey. The fact that the people running this scheme have been able to dig a 30 meters long tunnel from a basement, introduce nearly a dozen pressure hoses operated through compressors and conduct their operations massively during a long period of time demonstrates how sophisticated this market has become.

Now, the huachicol in the Colonia Gloria Mendiola is nothing new. It happens that parallel to the Colonia Gloria Mendiola run 4 Pemex distribution channels: two poliductos/polyducts (pipelines channeling already refined hydrocarbons, which are the most targeted by huachicoleros since they obtain the product already refined and don´t have to refine it by themselves) and two gasoductos/gas ducts (funneling natural gas) The first polyduct connects the Terminal de Abastecimiento y Reparto (Supply and Distribution Terminal) of Sabinas in Coahuila and the TAR of Santa Catalina at the southwest of Monterrey. The second polyduct is connects the Satelite TAR of Santa Catalina with the TAR of Cadereyta, a very important one since it´s closed to one of the only six Mexican Pemex refineries located at Cadereyta Jimenez, at the east of Monterrey. Between 2009 and 2014 only 10 clandestine intakes were detected at the Colonia Gloria Mendiola. 5 of them drained the Satelite-Sabinas polyduct while the other 5 drained the Satelite-Cadereyta polyduct.

Illegal oil intakes in the Colonia Maria Mendiola


Illegal intakes at Maria Mendiola (highlighted in yellow) seen from higher altitude. Look at the perfect straight line they form, just following the pipelines.

Of the 10 intakes only 1 was permanent, this means parallel, with home-built pipes connected to the polyduct and operated regularly. The intake was made into the Satelite-Cadereyta polyduct at Maria Mendiola´s western limits on March 19th, 2014 and operated from a house located in the Calle Asís. As we can see the intake was located just under the house. In the case of the tunnel conecting with the illegal intake discovered two weeks ago, it must connect a house near the polyduct, since the tunnel was only 30 meters long.

The only Permanent huachicol intake made at Maria Mendiola until now 
(according to available data)

I haven´t been able to gather data since 2014 about illegal intakes taking place at the Colonia Maria Mendiola, but I´m quite sure they have increased exponentially. In fact, the pattern of illegal intakes near Monterrey can only indicate one thing: criminal groups are operating these intakes not anarchically but in a very neatly way. Always following the straight lines outliend by Pemex´s pipelines, near urban areas where they can hide the stolen oil and distribute it to local residents, etc.

Now, the question is who runs this huachicol networks in Monterrey. For me it´s obvious that during 2012/2013/2014 (when much of the intakes at Colonia Maria Mendiola happened) the oil theft market in Monterrey was controlled by the Zetas since the Treviños and their affiliates assaulted the city and its surrounding trying to absorb the illegal markets and to attract and affiliate local gangs and ``clicas´´. 

According to the info published on Valor Por Tamaulipas and Grillonautas the huachitunel discovered two week ago in Maria Mendiola belongs to the Cartel Del Noreste, the organization lead by Juan Gerardo Treviño Chavez aka El Huevo, nephew of the Treviño brothers. If this is true it could be ventured that the CDN is using local huachicol networks in Monterrey. If this is also true we should ask ourselves if this people are just buying gas from them or if they are controlling the whole businesses extracting and selling the hydrocarbons just as Pemex does.

Nevertheless, I´m not sure if this is true. I know that several CDG factions have a presence in the western and southern parts of Monterrey connected to Reynosa and I´ve previously tracked their stolen oil purchases at Cadereyta and the surrounding areas.

12 comments:

  1. Nice read, Redlogarythm! Fantastic analysis and research.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽

      Delete
  2. Excellent article. I watched a video on Vice News about this

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  3. General Brigadier DEM 5ta Sección Eduardo Leon Trawitz, wanted for huachicolero, for promotions with Fox And Comandante Borolas, (FECAL) and was put in charge of PEMEX security by EPN and shit started rolling like a snowball ever since.
    But some wanna keep blaming cartels and milk gallon plastic huachicoleros for the devil's works, as if they run to sell it to texas oil men...
    There's those who need to believe their daily dose of BS.

    ReplyDelete
  4. BB has been killing it lately. Lots of great researchers and reporters in the mainboard and in the forum. It's crazy how this community has grown and attracted this talent pool over the years.

    Nice job Redlogarythm!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽👍🏽

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    2. @ 1:19PM: Agree with your props... BB is highly respected thanks to its courageous pioneers and staffs over the years.

      I have often literally begged people I know to check out BB so that they can see for themselves what is going on next door in Mexico.
      I tell them our so-called "News" media grossly commits the crime of "ommission" (or minimalization) in covering Mexico. I have ideas why this is so... but will leave here.

      A few years back, I made a presentation to an HOA. Much of the material I used was from BB. I was doumbfounded by how ill informed my audience of "educated" people were about Mexico. Only a few in the audience corroborated what I was telling them.
      At the time, before Trump started calling the MSM, "FAKE NEWS" most Americans depended on CNN, MSNBC, etc to keep them informed of "important" events. Sadly, they still do but progress has been made and some good credit must go to BB.
      Thanks BB!!!!
      Mexico-Watcher

      Delete
  5. Nice matebruticas, in full panoramic color and all...

    ReplyDelete
  6. Yes Thank you enjoy reading

    wonder if when the oringinal pipeline was layed if after inspection before back filled they put in other pipes etc
    I worked on pipe in Santa Barbara area welders helper They were strict
    and watched like a hawk over our work xrays etc Why In Mexico more inspections arent done
    why not just extort the company
    and instead of steal Make them pay you to protect their assets ?

    another thought is the contamination
    to water soil etc its Shame all that crap in oceans rivers streams
    Wheres Greta Or Hollywood green peoples Wonder if they care to know all this when they fly down on private jets spend thousands that its all just a big fat lie ? or would they even care
    or should they care ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. While some past and present mexican government officers are unos pinches huachicoleros, not all of them are fans of contamination,
      No kexican huachicolero were involved in contaminating the amazonian river in the Ecuador or is refusing to clean up his mess for about 30 years, or in Nigeria or any other african country, Shell or ARCO, or Exxon or their colleagues think it is all paid for because they paid their kickbacks...
      Now properly masked bandit lawmakers in US congress and senate agree with oil corporations and help them get away with murder, even on the US.

      Delete
    2. Someone on the US is sinking the oil industry to protect the shale investors, that true?

      Delete
  7. Excelent investigation...keep this goid work

    ReplyDelete

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