Blog dedicated to reporting on Mexican drug cartels
on the border line between the US and Mexico

Friday, October 30, 2015

Conversation between CDG comandantes reveal car bomb plans, narco message follows

By Lucio R. Borderland Beat

On October 21we were sent a link to an audio recording which was posted on the Face book page “Río Bravo Zona De Peligro”.

While there is no way for us to verify its authenticity, there has been a development that makes it worthwhile to post the story.

Translation of the audio narrative

This is difficult but what makes sense is that there are 2 lines of communication going on simultaneously.  I believe there is the cell phone communication between CDG comandantes Chiricuas and Wero (guero) Cleofas, and also an open radio frequency communication with comandante Toro which is referred to but Toro is unheard.  (Julian Manuel "Comandante Toro" Loisa Salinas)

In the recording Chiricuas is off the rails high and does most the speaking.  At first there is a little banter back and forth,  Chiricuas then says that Los Zetas cartel is back in Cuidad Mier. 

Mier a border city in Tamaulipas was the site of the 2010 CDG/Zetas massive combat over control of it and other cities.  This was at the time of the split between the two former allies.  Mier was ground zero of the battle.  It was the first Mexican city where citizens were told to leave or be killed.  In the mass exodus that followed, thousands of families had nowhere to go, and shelters were set up in nearby cities such as San Miguel Aleman.  BB administrator Chivis Martinez and her foundation took supplies to the Mier SMA shelter, read about that troubling experience by linking here.

In the audio,  car bombs are discussed.  Chiricuas tells Wero of the plans to detonate car bombs in the vehicles of the Fuerza Tamaulipas.  He says this is for retaliation of the heavy hits against Metros (CDG) of Reynosa by the Fuerza. 

Mayor of Cocula detained with leader of Guerreros Unidos

Translated by Otis B Fly-Wheel for Borderland Beat from a Proceso article

[ Subject Matter: Eric Ullises Ramirez, Aran Casarrubios Salgado
Recommendation: No prior subject matter knowledge required]

The Mayor of Cocula, Eric Ullises Ramirez Crespo

Reporter: Proceso Redaction
Elements of the Army and the Federal Police detained Eric Ullises Ramirez, Mayor of Cocula, and Adan Casarrubias Salgado, one of the leaders of the criminal group "Guerreros Unidos".

Ramirez and Casarrubias were drinking alcohol when detained. The armed forces also confiscated two rifles, a handgun and packet of cocaine.

They were detained in Cuernavaca, Morelos, together with Eloy Flores, an assessor from the PRD parliamentary group in the House of Deputies.

"El JJ" warned of Chapos escape, Z42 and others complained of Chapos special privileges

By Lucio R. for Borderland Beat

Last February, the Intelligence Division of the Federal Police obtained information revealing that Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman had intended to escape the Federal Altiplano Prison.

Reforma reports that Mauricio Enriquez, a member of that division and one of the agents monitoring (with audio) Guzman from Mexico City, said in his declaration to the PGR agency that intelligence captured a prisoner talking about the escape Chapo Guzman was planning.

In February 2015, information was captured on audio intelligence, from the prison area of Special Treatments. It was protected witness, Jose Jorge Balderas Garza, "El JJ", (left) who said that "El Chapo" Guzman was planning to escape.  This information was forwarded directly, in writing, to prison director, Valentin Cardenas Lerma.  The agent confirmed that the director received the report.

Cardenas Lerma is now incarcerated for her suspected role in El Chapo’s July prison escape.

Thursday, October 29, 2015

Texas Mother and infant shot by Mexican Soldiers

Lucio R. Borderland Beat-republished from KRGV (follow link for news video)

Saida De La Torre said she hopes the Mexican soldiers who wounded her and her daughter will be held responsible. She said the Mexican government promised to help fix her bullet-riddled SUV. De La Torre hopes they keep their word.

Both mother and daughter were hit by flying bullets. De La Torre said the incident happened when she was visiting family in Camargo, Mexico.

“I was going to pick up my oldest daughter and was on the road, when we heard gun shots,” De La Torre said. “I told my cousin that we needed to go back to my parent's house, because it looked like something was going down. When I made a turn, I saw a vehicle with soldiers traveling really fast.”

De La Torre said she saw a black vehicle speeding by. It looked similar to her Dodge Nitro. She pulled over until the road was clear, and then she headed back to her parents’ home.

Out of nowhere, soldiers reappeared. They were right behind De La Torre.

“Everything seemed to be normal while I was driving back, but then I heard gun shots again,” De La Torre said. 

Baja California Sur Governor seeks help of USA State Dept to combat crime

Translated by Otis B Fly-Wheel for Borderland Beat from a BCS Noticias article

[ Subject Matter: USA State Dept, BCS State Government
Recommendation: No prior subject matter knowledge required]

Reporter: Ivan Gaxiola
La Paz, BCS. The Governor of Baja California Sur, Carlos Mendoza Davis, reported that he has sought the help of the State Dept of the United States to combat crime in the peninsular, he also said that the collaboration could include " equipment and infrastructure, until we have the capacity and the learning".

"We have made an invitation, and I hope it will materialize in the next few days, in order for the people of the State Dept, set up in Mexico, they can come here and get to know us, carry out a revision and diagnostic, and supervise and see where, we can inside of the points of the Merida Initiative, well, to synergize in order to be able to receive and give support and security in Baja California Sur ", said the Governor.

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Residents Take Up Arms Against Criminals

By: Manuel Vázquez | Translated by Valor for Borderland Beat

Amecameca, Mexico October 26, 2015— Residents from three locations located in the volcano area took security into their own hands in their communities; carrying out armed guard duty.

Residents of Santa Isabel Chalma and San Francisco Zentlalpan, villages belonging to the municipality of Amecameca, and San Antonio Tlaltecahuacán, of the municipality of Tlalmanalco, have carried out guard duty since last week along the main entrances of the communities in order to keep out assailants.

(Valor: Amecameca is a municipality located between Mexico City and the Iztaccíhuatl and Popocatépetl volcanos.)

In Santa Isabel Chalma, armed with shotguns, machetes, and farm tools, villagers roam the streets and placed checkpoints in order to detect the presence of assailants and suspicious people.

They warned that justice will be done with the first thief that they arrest and rejected the order of the director of the municipal police of Amecameca to suspend their vigilance.

“We’ll do it as long as necessary, until we catch a thief or put an end to so many assaults on the streets, we’ve had it up to here, the assailants don’t respect anyone in the village,” said José, a 53 year old farmer and one of the leaders of the movement.

In San Antonio Tlaltecahuacán, the neighbors of the warnings passed the events and from Friday, October 23, night guards began armed with weapons and tools that they used in the fields in order to confront criminals.

“La Muñeca” arrested in Chihuahua, wanted in the U.S. for drug trafficking

Elements of the Criminal Investigation Agency (CIA) (Spanish "AIC") assigned to Interpol captured Ana Marie Hernandez “La Muñeca” in Chihuahua Mexico, for crimes against health and bribery.

In a statement, the Attorney General's Office (PGR) reported Monday that the arrest took place after the Third District Judge Federal Criminal Proceedings in the Federal District issued an order of provisional detention for international extradition.

According to federal government sources, Hernandez, 38, is linked to a cell of the Juarez Cartel.

According to the arrest warrant, “La Muñeca”, a Mexican national, is required by the judge of the Western District of Texas, USA since 2013 and she was sentenced on charges of conspiracy to import five kilograms or more of cocaine.

Monday, October 26, 2015

Four human heads with a 'narco message' found in Zacatecas

An anonymous call to the police tipped off authorities about four abandoned coolers at a bus stop in the road fron OjoCaliente to Luis Moya, two municipalities located on the border with the state of Aguascalientes, inside the coolers there were four human heads.

Along with the cooler, the officers found narco banners with the following message.

 "Feliz día de los Muertos. Un cordial saludo del CDG (Cártel del Golfo) para los Talibanes. Sigan retando al 51. No supieron controlar su gente”

"Happy Day of the Dead. Regards from CDG (Gulf Cartel) to the Talibanes. Keep on challenging El 51. You couldn't control your people".

Sunday, October 25, 2015

7 bodies found in a Sonora border town, one was wanted in the U.S. for drug trafficking

Seven bodies were found in the state of Sonora, right next to the border with the United States, the victims had bullets holes from a high power rifles, so far only one has been identified.

The exact spot where the bodies were found is called El Sasabe, in the Saric municipality, and is a place where access is possible only by all terrain vehicles. It is also an access point to the United States for its desert climate conditions and the lack of human settlements is constant, becoming almost imperceptible.

Only one victim was identified,  relatives  identified Cipriano Obeso Berrelleza, 38, originally from Caborca ​​a neighboring Municipality of Altar, who was last seen on Saturday October 17 and who was reported missing on Wednesday 21 .

Alleged finanical operator of El Chapo Guzman arrested in Federal District

Translated by Otis B Fly-Wheel for Borderland Beat from a Proceso article and BB archives

[ Subject Matter: Arrest of Arturo Diaz Diaz
Recommendation: See link to article on Ademlo Niebla Gonzalez by BB reporter Lucio]

Reporter: Proceso Redaction
Arturo Diaz Diaz, alleged financial operator of the Cartel headed by Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman, was detained in the capital, under an arrest warrant with end of extradition.

Diaz Diaz cooperated with the PGR, he was responsible for the financial activity of a cell of the Sinaloa Cartel headed by Adelmo Niebla Gonzalez, "El Senor" or "El G3", who in May of 2014 escaped from Culiacan Prison also utilizing a tunnel. (see link to article on the escape translated by Siskiyou Kid from BB Forum and posted by Chivis).

Adelmo Niebla Gonzalez

Iguala & Tlatlaya Cases: U.S. blocking Mexico's Mérida funds, due to human rights disasters

By Lucio R for Borderland Beat
From Tlatlaya extrajudicial killings of 22

The colossal mess and failure of Mérida 

Reforma is reporting the United States has again blocked a portion of funds due to be given to Mexico through the Merida Initiative.  The initiative was established to support Mexico in funds and equipment, in its fight against drugs.

The U.S. with withhold 15% (5M)of the total annual budget allocated, until the State Department issues a certification that Mexico has met the human rights standards.

The U.S. decided on this action in part based on the Iguala case of the killing and kidnapping of 49 persons on September 26-27, 2014.  43 of the 49, mostly normalistas, are missing and presumed dead,  ( the majority of people in Mexico are discounting the official explanation by the Enrique Peña Nieto administration).

Other cases are of extrajudicial killings such as the 22 in Tlatlaya. And 16 in Apatzingán, Michoacán where police were heard saying “mow them down like dogs” when killing or injuring the unarmed citizens including children. Some photos reveal a few of the citizens, with the only weapon they had in their vehicles, sticks.  Citizens reported federal police of planting the few weapons shown in photos.

The US government significantly strengthened its partnership with Mexico in combating organized crime in 2007 when it announced the Merida Initiative, a multi-year US security assistance package for Mexico.  Aside from funds, the U.S. has provided equipment and training.

Since the 2008 onset, the United States congress highlighted the importance of tying in assurances that Mexico respect human rights from the outset, US Congress recognized the importance of ensuring that the Mexican government respect human rights in its public security efforts, thereby mandated that 15% of funding be withheld of Merida funds until the State Department issued a report to the US Congress which showed that Mexico had demonstrated it was meeting four human rights requirements. 

Friday, October 23, 2015

Narco Corrido Singer Larry Hernandez arrives in S.C. Free on Bail

by Lucio R. Borderland Beat
Hernandez' cross country odyssey ended Friday morning

After nine days of being released for transfer from a Southern California jail, narco corrido singer
Larry Hernandez arrives in Newberry, South Carolina to face kidnapping charges.

This morning Borderland Beat was told that that singer had arrived at 6:36 a.m. and was scheduled to  face a judge at a bail hearing on Saturday, but less than 3 hours later the suspect faced the judge when the hearing was moved up to 11 a.m.  

The judge imposed  a set bail in the amount of $200,000.

Under the conditions of bail, Hernandez was allowed to return to his Southern California home in West Covina, but must report to the court every two weeks and submit to random drug testing.

“Larry Hernandez was also ordered to surrender his passport and forbidden to have any contact with the victim or any other co-defendants,” said Police Chief Roy McClurkin

Hernandez’s charges stems  from an Aug. 17 event where the victim alleges he was held against his will by individuals associated with a concert  at a Newberry skating rink.

"El Pepillo's" lieutenant murdered in Sinaloa

The right hand man of the plaza Boss from La Paz, Baja California Sur was executed by 10 shots in Colonia Cucas in Culiacan.

On Friday morning Alejandro Sánchez Trejo "El Frank", "El Frane" or "El Alex" was executed, he is considered by federal authorities as the right hand man for Jose Fernando Torres Montenegro "El Pepillo" the plaza leader of drug dealing in the South Zone of the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur.

"El Pepillo's" lieutenant was executed just 10 meters of a ballroom owned by him in the corner of Alvaro Obregon and Solon Zabre in Colonia Cucas in the Sinaloa capital.

CJNG narco tunnel, similar to the tunnel at Altiplano discovered in Tijuana

Translated by Otis B Fly-Wheel for Borderland Beat from a Proceso article with additional pictures and video from Zetatijuana.

[ Subject Matter: Narco Tunnel, Tijuana
Recommendation: No prior subject matter knowledge required]

Reporter: Proceso Redaction
A narco tunnel of 800 metres by 3 metres was discovered in the frontier between Tijuana and San Diego, California this past Wednesday by elements of the Federal Police and the Centre for National Security Investigations (cisen).

In the operation, the armed forces detained 16 alleged narco traffickers, one from Tijuana and the rest from Sinaloa, that were operating for the CJNG and were about to transport 10 tonnes of Marijuana in packets to the United States.

The discovery, signalled the National Commission for Security and Communication, was the product of weeks of investigative work in the office and field.

Thursday, October 22, 2015

PGR and Mexican Navy search the house of Emma Coronel in Sinaloa

The search for Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman was extended today to a house of his wife Emma Coronel Aispuro, located in the Hidalgo neighborhood of Culiacan Sinaloa.

Staff of the Attorney General's Office (PGR), in coordination with members of the Secretariat of the Navy, stormed and searched Thursday morning two houses, one in Amado Nervo Street between Columbus and Escobedo, owned by the couple's most wanted fugitive.

The Hidalgo colony is located east of the capital of Sinaloa, very near the center as it was reported on RioDoce Web Site.

Part 2: Mexico/Australia: Playboy Trafficker

Australia/Mexico cocaine trafficking: Playboy Trafficker

For several months, Owen Michael Hanson had been talking to the feds, unknowingly, at this point. He bragged about collecting drug debts, his sailboat, private investigators, false passports, his homes in Mexico, his contacts, enforcers, and the price point of cocaine sold in Australia, for up to 150k a kilo, sales that he allegedly coordinated with Australian businessmen and Mexican trafficking organizations. Authorities alleged he ordered a 5 kilogram meth deal, the day before he was arrested by FBI agents in the parking lot of a Hyatt Hotel & Resort golf course.

Owen Michael Hanson, 33, was perhaps not destined for any of this.  A privileged child with affluent parents, he was raised in the Redondo Beach area, a wealthy beach community near Los Angeles. His father is attempting to put up a 1.5 million dollar property as a cash surety bond to secure his sons release from federal custody. The district judge has refused, as prosecutors outline a picture of a successful drug trafficker, with far ranging assets.

Hanson, like many privileged LA youth attended USC, (without scholarship) after graduating from Redondo Union High, he majored in public planning, management, and and planning. He played on the USC Trojans as a tight end, and also mens volleyball in the early 2000's. A strained knee injury benched him, and he graduated in the mid 2000's, and went on to form 310 Development, a real estate development corporation. He married a Mexican citizen, and had two children with her before he was 20.

At some point, Hansen, involved himself, or became involved with the events chronicled in Part One. I imagine he partied a lot, coke, trips to Vegas, abroad, gambling, women, and the circles that comes with, and he became involved with Andrew McManus, and Sean Carolan, and an even wider circle of traffickers, money launderers, and distributors. Hansen's sprawling modern home in Redondo Beach, on a lot purchased by his father in 1985 was the subject of a piece for South Bay magazine.

An American Drug Lord Comes Home

Borderland Beat posted by DD, republished from The New Yorker


Edgar Valdez Villarreal, a.k.a. La Barbie, a Texas-born drug smuggler, was extradited from Mexico last month. Credit Photograph by Daniel Aguilar/Getty 

In 2006, a Texan named Edgar Valdez Villarreal was at an inflection point in his drug-smuggling career. Valdez was thirty-three and known as La Barbie for his blond hair and blue eyes, the fair-skinned look that Mexicans call güero. A former high-school linebacker from Laredo, he had spent about fifteen years shipping marijuana, and later, cocaine, to Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. During the late nineteen-nineties, he was one of many smugglers operating across the border, in Nuevo Laredo, the largest inland port in Mexico. The drug trade had been relatively peaceful. Each smuggler paid sixty thousand dollars a month to the local plaza boss, a man named Dionisio García, known as El Chacho, who in turn paid the bribes that insured the trafficking routes.

But in 2000, the Gulf cartel began to take over Nuevo Laredo, and gave every crook in town an option: join or die. El Chacho was killed, and La Barbie fled to Acapulco. He joined a clan from western Mexico, the Beltrán-Leyva brothers, who were associates of the powerful Sinaloa cartel, led by Joaquín Guzmán Loera, known as El Chapo. La Barbie prospered with the Beltrán Leyva cartel, a group of four brothers led by Arturo Beltrán Leyva, known to authorities as A.B.L. Government sources say the group imported about forty tons of coke per month through the southern port at Zihuatanejo. La Barbie, together with the Beltrán Leyvas and the Sinaloans, warred against the Gulf cartel for control of Nuevo Laredo. La Barbie orchestrated a bold public-relations campaign on behalf of his crew: he placed newspaper ads and editorials denouncing their rivals, and was supposedly responsible for making a viral video documenting the execution of four assassins who’d been sent to Acapulco to kill him. Soon, he acquired a global reputation as a top player. But by 2006, as the new Mexican President, Felipe Calderón, promised an assault on drug cartels, it became clear that La Barbie’s side had lost.

Military and Federals arrive in 6 towns of Michoacan

Translated by Otis B Fly-Wheel for Borderland Beat from a Michoacan 3.0 article

[ Subject Matter: Mexican Army, Federal Police, Michoacan
Recommendation: No prior subject matter knowledge required]

Reporter: Michoacan 3.0 Redaction
There are six towns in the State of Michoacan where the first elements arrived, both Military and Federal, with the mandate to open a front against the criminality, informed the a member of the Secretary of the Government, Adrian Lopez Solis.

They are, Morelia, Uruapan, Zitacuaro, Sahuayo, Huetamo and La Piedad, these represent places where, they have deployed Military and Federal forces, after being considered high risk area in criminal incidents.

Click on image to enlarge

Those in charge of the internal politics of the State, did not give specific number of forces deployed to the towns during this weekend, however they did declare that the deployment of troops would be gradual.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Mexican marines search Chapo's brother house in Culiacan.

Mexican military elements search an address where the family of El Chapo's brother Miguel Angel lives. The brother is in prison.

In the search for Joaquin Guzman Loera, alias "El Chapo" Guzman, the Navy extended its operations to residential areas of the state capital, where they are executing search warrants, one of them, was in the Chapultepec neighborhood where the family of Miguel Angel Guzman Loera lives. Chapo's brother, , who is in prison.

With the help of the military aboard armored vehicles that put a security fence around the house with the number 426, on Agricultores Street, members of the Attorney General's Office (PGR) enter the house, where they found two young people.

Larry Hernandez in Reno, Nevada, Texas reporter accuses the singer of assault

by Lucio R. for Borderland Beat, much appreciated BB reader for the Reno information, thank you
"C" for your ever present assistance.

A Borderland Beat reader has found the location of singer Larry Hernandez. He has been in Reno Nevada, on the right  is his booking mugshot from Reno taken on the 16th.  He looks worse for the wear in the mugshot and although it is difficult to tell for sure,  he does look like he has dropped some pounds.

A check this morning with Reno’s Washoe County Sheriff's Office inmate locator reveals he is once again MIA. 

And a earlier morning phone call to Newberry authorities revealed that Hernandez had not arrived there, the assumption is he is somewhere in-between.

On Wednesday October 14th Hernandez was released from the custody of San Bernardino County, in Southern California for extradition to Newberry S.C.

He then was MIA to those interested in his transfer.   Daily calls to Newberry county jail turned up empty of any information other than “he is not here yet”.

The desk sergeant stated that they had received over 100 call of inquiry in just a couple of days.  The fact that the county inmate search website is under construction and not usable for searches, has not help matters for the staff at county jail.

Hernandez will face charges in Newberry,  of kidnapping, third degree assault and battery by mob.  The singer is scheduled to face the Judge 24 hours after his arrival.

Reporter surfaces charges the singer of assault, threats and depriving him of his liberty

Narco corrido singer Cristian Iván Miranda Sandoval arrested with two firearms in Guerrero

Translated by Otis B Fly-Wheel for Borderland Beat from a Proceso article

[ Subject Matter: Cristian Ivan Miranda Sandoval
Recommendation: No prior subject matter knowledge required]

Reporter: Proceso Redaction
The singer of narco-corridos, Cristian Ivan Miranda Sandoval, 21 years of age, was detained by elements of the State Attorney Generals Office (FGE) with two fire arms.

The events occurred this past weekend in Zapopan, when the Police noticed Miranda Sandoval, who was driving a Cheyenne van in the Bugambillas Colonia, and after affecting a search of his vehicle, they found two pistols, on .38 and one .45 caliber, as well as 11,500 pesos and six cellular phones.

Newest scenario: Chapo fell off cliff during escape, face injuries, possible broken leg

by Lucio R.  for Borderland Beat
Near Cosalá, Sinaloa
Sometimes when reading  a report or an article, one will  spot “facts” that are not so factual,  leaving the  reader questioning the integrity of the remainder of the story, especially when the article is threaded with additional, questionable “facts”. Those frustrating articles, leaves dedicated students of the Mexican drug war, organized crime, and capos,  with  some head serious head-shaking,  due to  the absurdity of certain speculations or reports substantiated from anonymous sources.

For starters, CNN is reporting that 3 days before a confrontation with Mexican Marina (Navy) Chapo was seen riding motorcycles with a son, and with another riding in a Ferrari.  The CNN report also alluded to 3 weeks earlier “Chapo’s son” tweeted a photo with his son while they were dining al fresco at an eatery.  

CNN did not say the location of the dining setting, only that the photo depicts “El Chapo brazenly eating at a restaurant.”  When the photo went viral it named Costa Rica as the location.

CNN didn’t name the son, but the young man in the photo, did not appear to be any one of the sons previously identified as being El Chapo’s.

Issues such as that, and the use artistic liberty, can be fed to most people north of the border, because most people north, use one source to educate themselves on Mexico drug war issues and news  and that is U.S. mainstream media. 

Chapo is many things, but stupid is not even on the mile long list. And he is an astute student in learning lessons from mistakes.  He was captured in 2014 after he became a little complacent with his security, making more frequent trips down off the mountain.  And he and his crew, were  remiss with those troublesome cell phones and radio interceptions the U.S. Drug Administration are so good at.

In the case of Mazatlán, his son and bodyguard were two of the cell interceptions that aided the capture. 

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Son of “El Chapito” Barrial executed in Culiacán

A son of Rubén Salas Barrial, known as "El Chapito" Barrial who happens to be an alleged drug trafficking operator in Sinaloa, was executed last night when he was with his girlfriend in a luxury vehicle near his house in the Urban Development Tres Ríos.

The young 20 year old was identified as Ruben Salas Valdez, while the injured woman was identified as Yatsiel Garcia Diaz, 22, residing in the Santa Margarita area. She was admitted to a private clinic.

According to official reports, the attack occurred at 7:00 pm on Monday night when the young man was driving down the Pedro Coronel street, in the Parque Alameda del Tres Ríos division. The victim lived there.

Last Autodefensa of Arteaga Assassinated

Translated by Valor for Borderland Beat

The lifeless body of the last member of the autodefensas of Arteaga, Michoacán was found this past Monday.

The discovery of the body was made by residents on the road leading to the community of Hembrillas.

Local police arrived at the scene, who later confirmed the identity of the body as Vicente García Farías, 50, lying on the ground.

The body had several gunshot wounds and at the time of his death, he was wearing his uniform.

Forensic experts from the Attorney General of the State of Michoacán arrived at the scene accompanied by a public ministry agent who after the completion of the relevant proceedings, ordered the lifting and transportation of the body to the local medical examiner where an autopsy will be conducted.

It should be noted that García Farías remained as an autodefensa in Arteaga after his companions deserted due to not being paid; the man refused to abandon the cause and stood as the sole and last autodefensa of the municipality.

 Source: Noventa Grados